Tag Archives: 1 Samuel

1 Samuel 17:32-50

Note: the victory of David over Goliath is the victory of YHWH over the pride of man. To accomplish this a humble shepherd’s sling and stone was used as verse 50 emphasises. The centre of the chiasm would seem to be the refusal of Saul’s armour and the taking of the sling and stone – a tremendous act of faith. In E and E’ there is a contrast between YHWH going with David and the armour bearer going with Goliath. 

A.32 And David said to Saul, Let no man’s heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine. 33 And Saul said to David, Thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.

B.

i. (34) And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father’s sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock:

ii. (35) And I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him.

i’. (36) Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear:

C. and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.

D. (37) David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine.

E. And Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee.

F. 38 And Saul armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; also he armed him with a coat of mail. 39 And David girded his sword upon his armour,

G. and he assayed to go; for he had not proved it. And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these; for I have not proved them. And David put them off him.

F’. 40 And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd’s bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand:

E’. and he drew near to the Philistine. 41 And the Philistine came on and drew near unto David; and the man that bare the shield went before him.

D’. (42) And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance. (43) And the Philistine said unto David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. (44) And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.

C’.(45) Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.

B’.

i. (46) This day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand;

ii. and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee;  and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel.

i’. (47) And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear:for the battle is the LORD’s, and he will give you into our hands.

A’. 48 And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine. 49 And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth. 50 So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him.

1 Samuel 10:11-13

A: (11) And it came to pass, when all that knew him beforetime saw that, behold, he prophesied

B: among the prophets,

C: then the people said one to another, What is this that is come unto the son of Kish?

D: Is Saul also among the prophets?

C’: (12) And one of the same place answered and said, But who is their father?

B’: Therefore it became a proverb, Is Saul also among the prophets?

A’: And when he had made an end of prophesying, he came to the high place.

1 Samuel 18:12-16

A: (12) And Saul was afraid of David, because the LORD was with him, and was departed from Saul.

B: (13) Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a thousand; and he went out and came in before the people.

C: (14) And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways;

D: and the LORD was with him.

C’:(15) Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely,

A’: he was afraid of him.

B’: But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.

1 Samuel 26:21-25

RS

A.(21)Then said Saul, I have sinned: return, my son David:

B. for I will no more do thee harm, because my soul was precious in thine eyes this day: behold, I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly.

C. (22) And David answered and said, Behold the king’s spear! and let one of the young men come over and fetch it.

D. (23) The LORD render to every man his righteousness and his faithfulness:

C’. for the LORD delivered thee into my hand to day, but I would not stretch forth mine hand against the LORD’S anointed.

B’.(24) And, behold, as thy life was much set by this day in mine eyes, so let my life be much set by in the eyes of the LORD, and let him deliver me out of all tribulation.

A’.(25) Then Saul said to David, Blessed be thou, my son David: thou shalt both do great things, and also shalt still prevail. So David went on his way, and Saul returned to his place.

1 Samuel 26:5-13

A. (5) And David arose, and came to the place where Saul had pitched:and David beheld the place where Saul lay, and Abner the son of Ner, the captain of his host: and Saul lay in the trench, and the people pitched round about him.

B. (6) Then answered David and said to Ahimelech the Hittite, and to Abishai the son of Zeruiah, brother to Joab, saying, Who will go down with me to Saul to the camp? And Abishai said, I will go down with thee. (7)  So David and Abishai came to the people by night:and, behold, Saul lay sleeping within the trench, and his spear stuck in the ground at his bolster: but Abner and the people lay round about him.

C. (8) Then said Abishai to David, God hath delivered thine enemy into thine hand this day: now therefore let me smite him, I pray thee, with the spear even to the earth at once, and I will not smite him the second time. (9) And David said to Abishai, Destroy him not: for who can stretch forth his hand against the LORD ‘s anointed, and be guiltless?

D. (10) David said furthermore, As the LORD liveth, the LORD shall smite him; or his day shall come to die; or he shall descend into battle, and perish.

C’. (11) The LORD forbid that I should stretch forth mine hand against the LORD’ s anointed:

B’. but, I pray thee, take thou now the spear that is at his bolster, and the cruse of water, and let us go. (12) So David took the spear and the cruse of water from Saul’s bolster; and they gat them away, and no man saw it, nor knew it, neither awaked:for they were all asleep; because a deep sleep from the Lord was fallen upon them.

A’. (13) Then David went over to the other side, and stood.

1 SAMUEL 23:16-18

A (16) And JONATHAN Saul’s son arose,

B (16) and went to DAVID INTO THE WOOD, and strengthened his hand in God.

C (17) And he said unto him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul MY FATHER shall not find thee;

D (17) and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee;

C′ (17) and that also Saul MY FATHER knoweth.

B′ (18) And they two made a covenant before Yahweh: and DAVID abode IN THE WOOD,

A′ (17) and JONATHAN went to his house.

1 SAMUEL 17:48-51

Here is another chiasm in 1 Samuel 17, but centred in 1 Samuel 17:49 (which forms the end of the chiasm found by RS in 1 Samuel 17:40-50). This chiasm shows the importance of the stone, comparable with the stone in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream.

A (48) And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and RAN toward the army to meet the Philistine.

B (49) And David put HIS HAND in his bag,

C (49) and took thence A STONE,

D (49) and SLANG it,

E (49) and smote the Philistine IN HIS FOREHEAD,

F (49) that the stone sunk

E’ (49) INTO HIS FOREHEAD; and he fell upon his face to the earth.

D’ (50) So David prevailed over the Philistine with A SLING

C’ (50) and with A STONE, and smote the Philistine, and slew him;

B’ (50) but there was no sword IN THE HAND of David.

A’ (51) Therefore David RAN, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled.

1 Samuel 18:15-30

John and Sarah O suggest this pattern in a chapter  to do with the love of the people and of Michal  for David, with a  centre which seems to be about Saul’s deception using “all his servants love thee”. Any thoughts? 

A 15 Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely,

B he was afraid of him.

C 16 But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.

D 17 And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and fight the LORD’s battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.

E 18 And David said unto Saul, Who am I? and what is my life, or my father’s family in Israel, that I should be son in law to the king? 19 But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul’s daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.

F 20 And Michal Saul’s daughter loved David: and they told Saul, and the thing pleased him.

G 21 And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him.

H Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt this day be my son in law in the one of the twain.

I. 22 And Saul commanded his servants, saying, Commune with David secretly, and say,

J. Behold, the king hath delight in thee, and all his servants love thee: now therefore be the king’s son in law.

I’ 23 And Saul’s servants spake those words in the ears of David.

H’. And David said, Seemeth it to you a light thing to be a king’s son in law, seeing that I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed?

G’ 24 And the servants of Saul told him, saying, On this manner spake David. 25 And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king’s enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.

F’ 26 And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to be the king’s son in law: and the days were not expired.

E’ 27 Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins, and they gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king’s son in law.

D’ And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.

C’ 28 And Saul saw and knew that the LORD was with David, and that Michal Saul’s daughter loved him.

B’ 29 And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became David’s enemy continually.

A’ 30 Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to pass, after they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by.

 

1 Samuel 17:40-50

RS submitted this which we also found during Dafydd’s Bible Class tonight in Mumbles.

A.(40) And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd’s bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand:

B. and he drew near to the Philistine. (41) And the Philistine came on and drew near unto David; and the man that bare the shield went before him.

C.(42) And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance. (43) And the Philistine said unto David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves?

D. And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.

E.(44) And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.

F.(45) Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.

E’.(46) This day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth;

D’. that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel.

C’.(47) And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the LORD’S, and he will give you into our hands.

B’.(48) And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.

A’.(49) And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth. (50) So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David.

1 Samuel 2:1-10

(Note: C and C’ come either side of the two central parallel phrases D and D’. Hannah’s prayer centres on the truth that it is God that is in control of people’s lives – He commands fortune and misfortune, He gives and He takes away, He can tip the balance at any time. C and C’, although having few verbal connections, both illustrate this idea of a complete reversal of condition or circumstance governed by God. In C the barren give birth to many children and the hungry no longer need to work for food and in C’ the poor and beggars become like princes.

The word ‘poor’ in verse 8 literally means something that is dangling/limp/thin and hence its application in this context means a poor, weak, feeble person – a very similar concept to ‘waxed feeble’ in verse 5.)

 

(1a)  And Hannah prayed, and said,

A  (1b-2)  My heart rejoiceth in the LORD, mine horn is exalted in the LORD: my mouth is enlarged over mine enemies; because I rejoice in thy salvation. There is none holy as the LORD: for there is none beside thee: neither is there any rock like our God.

B  (3-4)  Talk no more so exceeding proudly; let not arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the LORD is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed. The bows of the mighty men (gibbôr) are broken, and they that stumbled are girded with strength.

C  (5)  They that were full have hired out themselves for bread; and they that were hungry ceased: so that the barren hath born seven; and she that hath many children is waxed feeble.

D  (6)  The LORD killeth, and maketh alive: he bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up.

D’  (7)  The LORD maketh poor, and maketh rich: he bringeth low, and lifteth up.

C’  (8)  He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the LORD’S, and he hath set the world upon them.

B’  (9-10a)  He will keep the feet of his saints, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness; for by strength shall no man prevail (gâbar). The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them:

A’  (10b)  the LORD shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed.