All posts by SJD

Job 36:26-37:24

(Note: Elihu’s final speech describes God’s greatness seen in His control of the weather and its purpose. In this passage there are three different words all translated ‘clouds’. The chiastic structure remarkably pairs up these different types of cloud. Section C deals with the voice of God as thunder and is contrasted to the voice of man in C’. The stormy frost of D is contrasted to the warm calmer weather of D’. The central clause gives us an insight into how God uses these wonders – they are for correction, for His land, or for mercy.)

A  (26)  Behold, God is great, and we know him not, neither can the number of his years be searched out.

B  (27-33)  For he maketh small the drops of water: they pour down rain according to the vapour thereof: Which the clouds do drop and distil upon man abundantly. Also can any understand the spreadings of the clouds, or the noise of his tabernacle? Behold, he spreadeth his light upon it, and covereth the bottom of the sea. For by them judgeth he the people; he giveth meat in abundance. With clouds he covereth the light; and commandeth it not to shine by the cloud that cometh betwixt. The noise thereof sheweth concerning it, the cattle also concerning the vapour.

C  (1-8)  At this also my heart trembleth, and is moved out of his place. Hear attentively the noise of his voice, and the sound that goeth out of his mouth. He directeth it under the whole heaven, and his lightning unto the ends of the earth. After it a voice roareth: he thundereth with the voice of his excellency; and he will not stay them when his voice is heard. God thundereth marvellously with his voice; great things doeth he, which we cannot comprehend. For he saith to the snow, Be thou on the earth; likewise to the small rain, and to the great rain of his strength. He sealeth up the hand of every man; that all men may know his work. Then the beasts go into dens, and remain in their places.

D  (9-10)  Out of the south cometh the whirlwind: and cold out of the north. By the breath of God frost is given: and the breadth of the waters is straitened.

E  (11a)  Also by watering he wearieth the thick cloud:

F  (11b-12a)  he scattereth his bright cloud: And it is turned round about by his counsels:

G  (12b-14)  that they may do whatsoever he commandeth them upon the face of the world in the earth. He causeth it to come, whether for correction, or for his land, or for mercy. Hearken unto this, O Job: stand still, and consider the wondrous works of God.

F  (15)  Dost thou know when God disposed them, and caused the light of his cloud to shine?

E’  (16)  Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds, the wondrous works of him which is perfect in knowledge?

D’  (17-18)  How thy garments are warm, when he quieteth the earth by the south wind? Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong, and as a molten looking glass?

C’  (19-20)  Teach us what we shall say unto him; for we cannot order our speech by reason of darkness. Shall it be told him that I speak? if a man speak, surely he shall be swallowed up.

B’  (21-22)  And now men see not the bright light which is in the clouds: but the wind passeth, and cleanseth them. Fair weather cometh out of the north: with God is terrible majesty.

A’  (23-24)  Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out: he is excellent in power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice: he will not afflict. Men do therefore fear him: he respecteth not any that are wise of heart.

Job 36:1-25

(1)  Elihu also proceeded, and said,

A  (2-4)  Suffer me a little, and I will shew thee that I have yet to speak on God’s behalf. I will fetch my knowledge from afar, and will ascribe righteousness to my Maker. For truly my words shall not be false: he that is perfect in knowledge is with thee.

B  (5-7)  Behold, God is mighty, and despiseth not any: he is mighty in strength and wisdom. He preserveth not the life of the wicked: but giveth right to the poor. He withdraweth not his eyes from the righteous: but with kings are they on the throne; yea, he doth establish them for ever, and they are exalted.

C  (8-10)  And if they be bound in fetters, and be holden in cords of affliction; Then he sheweth them their work, and their transgressions that they have exceeded. He openeth also their ear to discipline, and commandeth that they return from iniquity.

D  (11-12)  If they obey and serve him, they shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in pleasures. But if they obey not, they shall perish by the sword, and they shall die without knowledge.

E  (13-14)  But the hypocrites in heart heap up wrath: they cry not when he bindeth them. They die in youth, and their life is among the unclean.

F  (15-16)  He delivereth the poor in his affliction, and openeth their ears in oppression. Even so would he have removed thee out of the strait into a broad place, where there is no straitness; and that which should be set on thy table should be full of fatness.

E’  (17-18)  But thou hast fulfilled the judgment of the wicked: judgment and justice take hold on thee. Because there is wrath, beware lest he take thee away with his stroke: then a great ransom cannot deliver thee.

D’  (19-20)  Will he esteem thy riches? no, not gold, nor all the forces of strength. Desire not the night, when people are cut off in their place.

C’  (21)  Take heed, regard not iniquity: for this hast thou chosen rather than affliction.

B’  (22-23)  Behold, God exalteth by his power: who teacheth like him? Who hath enjoined him his way? or who can say, Thou hast wrought iniquity?

A’  (24-25)  Remember that thou magnify his work, which men behold. Every man may see it; man may behold it afar off.

Job 35:1-16

(Note: Elihu’s fourth speech begins by addressing the wrong conclusions that Job had reached – the things that Job said are again described in A’ as empty and words without knowledge. In B Job is told to behold the greatness and power of God contrasting with B’ where God does not behold the empty cries of pride from the earth. Again it is the centre D that emphasises the correct attitude man should have towards God, that of gratitude and reverence.)

(1)  Elihu spake moreover, and said,

A  (2-4)  Thinkest thou this to be right, that thou saidst, My righteousness is more than God’s? For thou saidst, What advantage will it be unto thee? and, What profit shall I have, if I be cleansed from my sin? I will answer thee, and thy companions with thee.

B  (5-8)  Look unto the heavens, and see; and behold the clouds which are higher than thou. If thou sinnest, what doest thou against him? or if thy transgressions be multiplied, what doest thou unto him? If thou be righteous, what givest thou him? or what receiveth he of thine hand? Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art; and thy righteousness may profit the son of man.

C  (9)  By reason of the multitude of oppressions they make the oppressed to cry: they cry out by reason of the arm of the mighty.

D  (10-11)  But none saith, Where is God my maker, who giveth songs in the night; Who teacheth us more than the beasts of the earth, and maketh us wiser than the fowls of heaven?

C’  (12)  There they cry, but none giveth answer, because of the pride of evil men.

B’  (13)  Surely God will not hear vanity, neither will the Almighty regard it.

A’  (14-16)  Although thou sayest thou shalt not see him, yet judgment is before him; therefore trust thou in him. But now, because it is not so, he hath visited in his anger; yet he knoweth it not in great extremity: Therefore doth Job open his mouth in vain; he multiplieth words without knowledge.

Job 34:1-37

(Note: As in Elihu’s previous speech his third speech begins and ends with sections where he refers to Job by name. This speech seems to be specifically addressing the friends of Job. A and A’ deal with the spoken mistakes Job has made in questioning God and his justice. In C’ Elihu teaches the correct attitude we should have, an attitude that comes from viewing God as He is described in C. The central principal is that God knows us best and is just in his dealings with us.)


(1)  Furthermore Elihu answered and said,

A  (2-9)  Hear my words, O ye wise men; and give ear unto me, ye that have knowledge. For the ear trieth words, as the mouth tasteth meat. Let us choose to us judgment: let us know among ourselves what is good. For Job hath said, I am righteous: and God hath taken away my judgment. Should I lie against my right? my wound is incurable without transgression. What man is like Job, who drinketh up scorning like water? Which goeth in company with the workers of iniquity, and walketh with wicked men. For he hath said, It profiteth a man nothing that he should delight himself with God.

B  (10a)  Therefore hearken unto me, ye men of understanding:

C  (10b-15)  far be it from God, that he should do wickedness; and from the Almighty, that he should commit iniquity. For the work of a man shall he render unto him, and cause every man to find according to his ways. Yea, surely God will not do wickedly, neither will the Almighty pervert judgment. Who hath given him a charge over the earth? or who hath disposed the whole world? If he set his heart upon man, if he gather unto himself his spirit and his breath; All flesh shall perish together, and man shall turn again unto dust.

D  (16-19)  If now thou hast understanding, hear this: hearken to the voice of my words. Shall even he that hateth right govern? and wilt thou condemn him that is most just? Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked? and to princes, Ye are ungodly? How much less to him that accepteth not the persons of princes, nor regardeth the rich more than the poor? for they all are the work of his hands.

E  (20)  In a moment shall they die, and the people shall be troubled at midnight, and pass away: and the mighty shall be taken away without hand.

F  (21-23)  For his eyes are upon the ways of man, and he seeth all his goings. There is no darkness, nor shadow of death, where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves. For he will not lay upon man more than right; that he should enter into judgment with God.

E’  (24-25)  He shall break in pieces mighty men without number, and set others in their stead. Therefore he knoweth their works, and he overturneth them in the night, so that they are destroyed.

D’  (26-30)  He striketh them as wicked men in the open sight of others; Because they turned back from him, and would not consider any of his ways: So that they cause the cry of the poor to come unto him, and he heareth the cry of the afflicted. When he giveth quietness, who then can make trouble? and when he hideth his face, who then can behold him? whether it be done against a nation, or against a man only: That the hypocrite reign not, lest the people be ensnared.

C’  (31-33)  Surely it is meet to be said unto God, I have borne chastisement, I will not offend any more: That which I see not teach thou me: if I have done iniquity, I will do no more. Should it be according to thy mind? he will recompense it, whether thou refuse, or whether thou choose; and not I: therefore speak what thou knowest.

B’  (34)  Let men of understanding tell me, and let a wise man hearken unto me.

A’  (35-37)  Job hath spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom. My desire is that Job may be tried unto the end because of his answers for wicked men. For he addeth rebellion unto his sin, he clappeth his hands among us, and multiplieth his words against God.

Psalm 5

(Note: The words ‘bloody’ and ‘open sepulchre’ in C and C’ have no obvious connection until you read Romans 3:13 and 3:15 where both concepts are brought together describing the same type of wicked person.)

A  To the chief Musician upon Nehiloth, A Psalm of David.

A. 1-3 Give ear to my words, O LORD,
consider my meditation.
Hearken unto the voice of my cry, my King, and my God:
for unto thee will I pray.
My voice shalt thou hear in the morning, O LORD;
in the morning will I direct my prayer unto thee, and will look up.

B  (4-5)  For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness:
neither shall evil dwell with thee.
The foolish shall not stand in thy sight:
thou hatest all workers of iniquity.

C  (6)  Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing:
the LORD will abhor the bloody and deceitful man.

D  (7)  But as for me,
I will come into thy house in the multitude of thy mercy:
and in thy fear will I worship toward thy holy temple.

D’  (8)  Lead me, O LORD,
in thy righteousness because of mine enemies;
make thy way straight before my face.

C’  (9)  For there is no faithfulness in their mouth;
their inward part is very wickedness;
their throat is an open sepulchre;
they flatter with their tongue.

B’  (10)  Destroy thou them, O God;
let them fall by their own counsels;
cast them out in the multitude of their transgressions;
for they have rebelled against thee.

A’  (11-12)  But let all those that put their trust in thee rejoice:
let them ever shout for joy, because thou defendest them:
let them also that love thy name be joyful in thee.
For thou, LORD, wilt bless the righteous;
with favour wilt thou compass him as with a shield.

Job 33:1-33

(Note: Elihu’s second speech is addressed directly to Job. In A and A’  Elihu refers to Job by name; both these sections are chiastic. Section A is the longer of the two and parallels Elihu’s speeches (i) with Job’s own words (i’), (ii) and (ii’) both reassure Job that Elihu will be truthful and not cruel, he refers to the fact that he is a man created by God in (iii) and (iii’) and in the central phrase (iv) Elihu gives Job an opportunity to respond, ‘answer me’ – something that the three friends never did. This central phrase is repeated in A’.

Between these outer sections Elihu teaches three ways in which God deals with man. They are bookended by the phrases in B and B’ – ‘God speaketh once, yea twice‘ and ‘God worketh oftentimes’ [the Hebrew for oftentimes is twice and thrice]. I suggest that the first and third teachings are in parallel – C being how God hides unrighteousness from man and C’ is how He shows his righteousness to man. The teaching in the middle (E) is about how God uses suffering – this section is chiastic and centres on language that links back with Genesis 3:6 helping us see that God can use suffering to reduce temptation and consequently sin.)

A  (1-13)

(i)  (1-2)  Wherefore, Job, I pray thee, hear my speeches, and hearken to all my words. Behold, now I have opened my mouth, my tongue hath spoken in my mouth.

(ii)  (3)  My words shall be of the uprightness of my heart: and my lips shall utter knowledge clearly.

(iii)  (4)  The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.

(iv)  (5)  If thou canst answer me, set thy words in order before me, stand up.

(iii’)  (6)  Behold, I am according to thy wish in God’s stead: I also am formed out of the clay.

(ii’)  (7)  Behold, my terror shall not make thee afraid, neither shall my hand be heavy upon thee.

(i’)  (8-13)  Surely thou hast spoken in mine hearing, and I have heard the voice of thy words, saying, I am clean without transgression, I am innocent; neither is there iniquity in me. Behold, he findeth occasions against me, he counteth me for his enemy, He putteth my feet in the stocks, he marketh all my paths. Behold, in this thou art not just: I will answer thee, that God is greater than man. Why dost thou strive against him? for he giveth not account of any of his matters.

B  (14)  For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not.

C  (15-17)  In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed; Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instruction, That he may withdraw man from his purpose, and hide pride from man.

D  (18)  He keepeth back his soul from the pit, and his life from perishing by the sword.

E  (19-21)

(i)  (19)  He is chastened also with pain upon his bed, and the multitude of his bones with strong pain:

(ii)  (20)  So that his life abhorreth bread, and his soul dainty meat.

(i’)  (21)  His flesh is consumed away, that it cannot be seen; and his bones that were not seen stick out.

D’  (22)  Yea, his soul draweth near unto the grave, and his life to the destroyers.

C’  (23-28)  If there be a messenger with him, an interpreter, one among a thousand, to shew unto man his uprightness: Then he is gracious unto him, and saith, Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom. His flesh shall be fresher than a child’s: he shall return to the days of his youth: He shall pray unto God, and he will be favourable unto him: and he shall see his face with joy: for he will render unto man his righteousness. He looketh upon men, and if any say, I have sinned, and perverted that which was right, and it profited me not; He will deliver his soul from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light.

B’  (29)  Lo, all these things worketh God oftentimes with man, (30)  To bring back his soul from the pit, to be enlightened with the light of the living.

A’  (31-33)

(i)  (31)  Mark well, O Job, hearken unto me: hold thy peace, and I will speak.

(ii)  (32)  If thou hast any thing to say, answer me: speak, for I desire to justify thee.

(i’)  (33)  If not, hearken unto me: hold thy peace, and I shall teach thee wisdom.

Daniel 6

A.  vs 1-3 Daniel is preferred in the kingdom .
(1)  It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom; (2)  And over these three presidents; of whom Daniel was first: that the princes might give accounts unto them, and the king should have no damage. (3)  Then this Daniel was preferred above the presidents and princes, because an excellent spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm.

B. vs 4-9 The  jealous presidents persuade the King to sign the decree that everyone should  pray to him.
 (4) Then the presidents and princes sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning the kingdom; but they could find none occasion nor fault; forasmuch as he was faithful, neither was there any error or fault found in him. (5)  Then said these men, We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, except we find it against him concerning the law of his God. (6)  Then these presidents and princes assembled together to the king, and said thus unto him, King Darius, live for ever. (7)  All the presidents of the kingdom, the governors, and the princes, the counsellors, and the captains, have consulted together to establish a royal statute, and to make a firm decree, that whosoever shall ask a petition of any God or man for thirty days, save of thee, O king, he shall be cast into the den of lions. (8)  Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not. (9)  Wherefore king Darius signed the writing and the decree.

C. vs 10-13 Daniel prays to God and is accused for it
(10)  Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime. (11)  Then these men assembled, and found Daniel praying and making supplication before his God. (12)  Then they came near, and spake before the king concerning the king’s decree; Hast thou not signed a decree, that every man that shall ask a petition of any God or man within thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions? The king answered and said, The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not. (13)  Then answered they and said before the king, That Daniel, which is of the children of the captivity of Judah, regardeth not thee, O king, nor the decree that thou hast signed, but maketh his petition three times a day.

D. vs 14 The King attempts to deliver Daniel but fails
Then the king, when he heard these words, was sore displeased with himself, The King is concerned and attempts to deliver Daniel and set his heart on Daniel to deliver him: and he laboured till the going down of the sun to deliver him.

E. vs 15-16a  Law enacted –  Daniel is cast into the lion’s den
(15)  Then these men assembled unto the king, and said unto the king, Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is, That no decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed. (16)  Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of lions.

F. v 16b King says God will deliver Daniel
Now the king spake and said unto Daniel, Thy God whom thou servest continually, he will deliver thee.

E’. v17 Stone sealed on the mouth of the den
(17)  And a stone was brought, and laid upon the mouth of the den; and the king sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his lords; that the purpose might not be changed concerning Daniel.

D’. vs 18-22 Has God delivered Daniel – Yes
(18)  Then the king went to his palace, and passed the night fasting: neither were instruments of musick brought before him: and his sleep went from him. (19)  Then the king arose very early in the morning, and went in haste unto the den of lions. (20)  And when he came to the den, he cried with a lamentable voice unto Daniel: and the king spake and said to Daniel, O Daniel, servant of the living God, is thy God, whom thou servest continually, able to deliver thee from the lions? (21)  Then said Daniel unto the king, O king, live for ever. (22)  My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut the lions’ mouths, that they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O king, have I done no hurt.

C’. vs 23-24 Daniel restored and the accusers executed
(23)  Then was the king exceeding glad for him, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was found upon him, because he believed in his God. (24)  And the king commanded, and they brought those men which had accused Daniel, and they cast them into the den of lions, them, their children, and their wives; and the lions had the mastery of them, and brake all their bones in pieces or ever they came at the bottom of the den.

B’. vs 25-27 The King’s decree to praise  honour Daniel’s God.
(25)  Then king Darius wrote unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto you. (26) I make a decree, That in every dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel: for he is the living God, and stedfast for ever, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed, and his dominion shall be even unto the end. (27)  He delivereth and rescueth, and he worketh signs and wonders in heaven and in earth, who hath delivered Daniel from the power of the lions.

A’. vs 28 Daniel prospers
(28)  So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.


Ephesians 5:3-21

A  (3-5)  (i)  But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints; Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient:

(ii)  but rather giving of thanks.

(i’)  For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.

B  (6)  Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.

C1  (7)  Be not ye therefore partakers with them.

C2  (8a)  For ye were sometimes darkness,

C3  (8b)  but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:

X  (9-10)  (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;) Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.

C1’  (11a)  And have no fellowship

C2’  (11b-12)  with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.

C3’  (13-14)  But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light. Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.

B’  (15-17)  See then that ye walk circumspectly,
not as fools, but as wise,
Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.
Wherefore be ye not unwise,
but understanding what the will of the Lord is.

A’  (18-21)  And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.

(Note: Compare the centre of this structure to the centre of the Romans 14:12-21 chiasm. The coloured words in B and B’ highlight a contrast – walking perfectly is the opposite of disobeying)

John 15:1-8

A  (1-2)  I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.

B  (3-4a)  Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I in you.

C  (4)  As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me.

X  (5a)  I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit:

C’  (5b-6)  for without me ye can do nothing. If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.

B’  (7)  If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.

A’  (8)  Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples.

(Note: Here in X Jesus clearly and simply affirms the main principal of this parable of the vine. He is the vine, his disciples are the branches and those who abide in him will bring forth much fruit. Immediately before and after this central point are sections (C and C’) explaining the folly of not abiding in Jesus and what that leads to – without Christ we cannot bear fruit and in the parable this ultimately leads to us being cast forth and burned. B and B’ both help clarify that it is the words and teachings of Christ which, if we have abiding in us, will lead to us bringing forth fruit. Finally this passage is bookended by two sections which focus on God (A and A’). Although in A we have a description of the two types of branches, it is still in the context of what God does to these branches. In A Jesus declares that God is the husbandman and it is He who removes or purges the branches. This ultimately leads to people bringing forth much fruit and glorifying Him as in A’.)


Ephesians 4:17-5:2

(Note: B’ lists in detail the teachings of Christ that have been learned/heard/taught as in B. This list forms its own chiastic pattern which centres on two parallel sections (iv and iv’), that of doing the things that are good and speaking/teaching the things that are good.)

A  (17-19)  This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind, Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart: Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness.

B  (20-21)  But ye have not so learned Christ; If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus:

C  (22)  That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;

X  (23)  And be renewed in the spirit of your mind;

C’  (24)  And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.

B’  (25-32)

(i)  (25)  Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of another.

(ii)  (26)  Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath:

(iii)  (27)  Neither give place to the devil.

(iv)  (28)  Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.

(iv’)  (29)  Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good to the use of edifying, that it may minister grace unto the hearers.

(iii’)  (30)  And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.

(ii’)  (31)  Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice:

(i’)  (32)  And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.

A’  (1-2)  Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children; And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour.