Note: the structural units were posted independently but since then I have seen the overall pattern suggested by Throntviet.
A. Report that the wall was joined up leads to opposition
a. 1 Now it came to pass, when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein; (though at that time I had not set up the doors upon the gates;)
Invitation – 2 That Sanballat and Geshem sent unto me, saying, Come, let us meet together in some one of the villages in the plain of Ono.
Response – But they thought to do me mischief. 3 And I sent messengers unto them, saying, I am doing a great work, so that I cannot come down: why should the work cease, whilst I leave it, and come down to you?
invitation x4 – 4 Yet they sent unto me four times after this sort;
response x4 – and I answered them after the same manner.
letter of accusation – 5 Then sent Sanballat his servant unto me in like manner the fifth time with an open letter in his hand; 6 Wherein was written, It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel: for which cause thou buildest the wall, that thou mayest be their king, according to these words. 7 And thou hast also appointed prophets to preach of thee at Jerusalem, saying, There is a king in Judah: and now shall it be reported to the king according to these words.
Invitation – Come now therefore, and let us take counsel together.
Response – 8 Then I sent unto him, saying, There are no such things done as thou sayest, but thou feignest them out of thine own heart.
a’. 9 For they all made us afraid, saying, Their hands shall be weakened from the work, that it be not done. Now therefore, O God, strengthen my hands.
B. Opposition instigated by Tobiah and Sanballat
a. 10 Afterward I came unto the house of Shemaiah the son of Delaiah the son of Mehetabeel, who was shut up; and he said, Let us meet together in the house of God, within the temple, and let us shut the doors of the temple: for they will come to slay thee; yea, in the night will they come to slay thee.
b.11 And I said, Should such a man as I flee? and who is there, that, being as I am, would go into the temple to save his life? I will not go in.
c.12 And, lo, I perceived that God had not sent him; but that he pronounced this prophecy against me: for Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him.
c’.13 Therefore was he hired, that I should be afraid, and do so, and sin,
b. and that they might have matter for an evil report, that they might reproach me.
a’.14 My God, think thou upon Tobiah and Sanballat according to these their works, and on the prophetess Noadiah, and the rest of the prophets, that would have put me in fear.
C. The wall is finished
a.15 So the wall was finished in the twenty and fifth day of the month Elul, in fifty and two days.
b.16 And it came to pass, that when all our enemies heard thereof,
c. and all the heathen that were about us saw these things,
b’. they were much cast down in their own eyes:
a’. for they perceived that this work was wrought of our God.
B’. Opposition instigated by Tobiah and Sanballat
a.17 Moreover in those days the nobles of Judah sent many letters unto Tobiah, and the letters of Tobiah came unto them.
b.18 For there were many in Judah sworn unto him, because he was the son in law of Shechaniah the son of Arah;
b’. and his son Johanan had taken the daughter of Meshullam the son of Berechiah.
a’. 19 Also they reported his good deeds before me, and uttered my words to him. And Tobiah sent letters to put me in fear.
A’. report that the wall was finished leads to action
a. 7:1 Now it came to pass, when the wall was built, and I had set up the doors, and the porters and the singers and the Levites were appointed,
b. 2 That I gave my brother Hanani, and Hananiah the ruler of the palace, charge over Jerusalem:
b’. for he was a faithful man, and feared God above many.
a’. 3 And I said unto them, Let not the gates of Jerusalem be opened until the sun be hot; and while they stand by, let them shut the doors, and bar them: and appoint watches of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, every one in his watch, and every one to be over against his house.