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Luke 21:25-26

A. 25 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars;

B. and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity;

C. the sea and the waves roaring;

B’. 26 Men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth:

A’. for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.

2 Kings 11:4-21

Note: the reference at the beginning and end to a seven year period envelopes the whole passage. The first pattern emphasises the obedience of the guard and explains that the covenant of verse 4 was the crowning of Jehoash. The second pattern has to do with  the execution of Athalia and the priest of Baal, but focuses on what looks like two covenants – between YHWH and the king/people and then between the king and the people. 

A. 4 And the seventh year

B. Jehoiada sent and fetched the rulers over hundreds, with the captains and the guard, and brought them to him into the house of the LORD, and made a covenant with them, and took an oath of them in the house of the LORD, and shewed them the king’s son.

C. The command to the guard.5 And he commanded them, saying, This is the thing that ye shall do; A third part of you that enter in on the sabbath shall even be keepers of the watch of the king’s house; 6 And a third part shall be at the gate of Sur; and a third part at the gate behind the guard: so shall ye keep the watch of the house, that it be not broken down. 7 And two parts of all you that go forth on the sabbath, even they shall keep the watch of the house of the LORD about the king. 8 And ye shall compass the king round about, every man with his weapons in his hand: and he that cometh within the ranges, let him be slain: and be ye with the king as he goeth out and as he cometh in.

C’.The command to the guard. 9 And the captains over the hundreds did according to all things that Jehoiada the priest commanded:  and they took every man his men that were to come in on the sabbath, with them that should go out on the sabbath, and came to Jehoiada the priest. 10 And to the captains over hundreds did the priest give king David’s spears and shields, that were in the temple of the LORD. 11 And the guard stood, every man with his weapons in his hand, round about the king, from the right corner of the temple to the left corner of the temple, along by the altar and the temple.

B’.12 And he brought forth the king’s son, and put the crown upon him, and gave him the testimony; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said, God save the king. 13 And when Athaliah heard the noise of the guard and of the people, she came to the people into the temple of the LORD.

2B. 14 And when she looked, behold, the king stood by a pillar, as the manner was, and the princes and the trumpeters by the king, and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets: and Athaliah rent her clothes, and cried, Treason, Treason.

2C. Death of Athalia – 15 But Jehoiada the priest commanded the captains of the hundreds, the officers of the host, and said unto them, Have her forth without the ranges: and him that followeth her kill with the sword. For the priest had said, Let her not be slain in the house of the LORD. 16 And they laid hands on her; and she went by the way by the which the horses came into the king’s house: and there was she slain.

2D.17 And Jehoiada made a covenant between the LORD and the king and the people,  that they should be the LORD’S people;  

2D’. between the king also and the people.

2C’. Death of Mattan – 18 And all the people of the land went into the house of Baal, and brake it down; his altars and his images brake they in pieces thoroughly, and slew Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars.

2B’. And the priest appointed officers over the house of the LORD. 19 And he took the rulers over hundreds, and the captains, and the guard, and all the people of the land; and they brought down the king from the house of the LORD, and came by the way of the gate of the guard to the king’s house.  And he sat on the throne of the kings. 20 And all the people of the land rejoiced, and the city was in quiet: and they slew Athaliah with the sword beside the king’s house.

A’. 21 Seven years old was Jehoash when he began to reign.


Ezekiel 6:11-12

Note: here is an example of one of the partial type inversions that seem common in the finverted quotes we have listed. 

11 Thus saith the Lord GOD; Smite with thine hand, and stamp with thy foot, and say, Alas for all the evil abominations of the house of Israel!

a. for they shall fall by the sword,

b. by the famine,

c. and by the pestilence.

c’. 12 He that is far off shall die of the pestilence;

a’. and he that is near shall fall by the sword;

b’. and he that remaineth and is besieged shall die by the famine:

thus will I accomplish my fury upon them.

Jeremiah 14:1-6

1 The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah concerning the dearth.

The city

a. 2 Judah mourneth,
b. and the gates thereof languish;
b’. they are black unto the ground;
a’. and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up.

a. 3 And their nobles have sent their little ones to the waters:
b. they came to the pits,
a’. and found no water;
b’. they returned with their vessels empty;

a. they were ashamed and confounded,
and covered their heads.
b. 4 Because the ground is chapt,
     for there was no rain in the earth,

The countryside

a’. the plowmen were ashamed,
they covered their heads.
b’. 5 Yea, the hind also calved in the field, and forsook it,
 because there was no grass (dese).
b’’6 And the wild asses did stand in the high places,
they snuffed up the wind like dragons;
their eyes did fail,
     because there was no grass (eseb).

Jeremiah 13:12-27

A. 12 Therefore thou shalt speak unto them this word;

B. Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Every bottle shall be filled with wine:

C. and they shall say unto thee, Do we not certainly know that every bottle shall be filled with wine?

A’. 13 Then shalt thou say unto them,

B’. Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will fill all the inhabitants of this land, even the kings that sit upon David’s throne, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, with drunkenness. 14 And I will dash them one against another, even the fathers and the sons together, saith the LORD: I will not pity, nor spare, nor have mercy, but destroy them.

2A. .15 Hear ye, and give ear; be not proud (gabah): for the LORD hath spoken.

2B.16 Give glory to the LORD your God,
before he cause darkness (hasak) ,
and before your feet stumble upon the dark (nesep) mountains,

2B’. and, while ye look for light,
he turn it into the shadow (sel) of death,
and make it gross darkness (arapel).

2A’.17 But if ye will not hear it,  my soul shall weep in secret places for your pride (gewa);  and mine eye shall weep sore, and run down with tears, because the LORD’s flock is carried away captive.

3A. 18  Say unto the king and to the queen,
Humble yourselves, sit down:
for your principalities shall come down,
even the crown of your glory (tipara).

3B. 19 The cities of the south shall be shut up,
and none shall open them:

3B’. Judah shall be carried away captive all of it,
it shall be wholly carried away captive.

3A’. 20 Lift up your eyes, and behold
them that come from the north:
where is the flock that was given thee,
thy beautiful (tipara) flock?

4A. 21 What wilt thou say when he shall punish thee?
for thou hast taught them to be captains,
and as chief over thee:
shall not sorrows take thee,
as a woman in travail?

4B. 22 And if thou say in thine heart,
Wherefore come these things upon me?

4B’. For the greatness of thine iniquity are thy skirts discovered,
and thy heels made bare.

4A’. 23 Can the Ethiopian change his skin,
or the leopard his spots?
then may ye also do good,
that are accustomed to do evil.

5A. 24 Therefore will I scatter them as the stubble that passeth away by the wind of the wilderness. 25 This is thy lot, the portion of thy measures from me, saith the LORD;
because thou hast forgotten me,
and trusted in falsehood.

5B. 26 Therefore will I discover thy skirts upon thy face,
that thy shame may appear.

5B’. 27 I have seen thine adulteries, and thy neighings,
the lewdness of thy whoredom,

5A’. and thine abominations
on the hills in the fields.
Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem!
wilt thou not be made clean?
when shall it once be?


Lamentations 1

Note: modified from J Renkema, JSOT Supp 74, Sheffield JSOT Press, 1988, quoted by Lundbom in Jeremiah 1-20, Anchor Yale Bible, 1999.

A. 1. How lonely sits the city
that was full of people!
How like a widow has she become,
she who was great among the nations!
She who was a princess among the provinces
has become a slave.
2 She weeps bitterly in the night,
with tears on her cheeks;
among all her lovers
she has none to comfort her;
all her friends have dealt treacherously with her;
they have become her enemies.
3 Judah has gone into exile because of affliction
and hard servitude;
she dwells now among the nations,
but finds no resting place;
her pursuers have all overtaken her
in the midst of her distress.

B. 4 The roads to Zion mourn,
for none come to the festival;
all her gates are desolate;
her priests groan;
her virgins have been afflicted,c
and she herself suffers bitterly.
5 Her foes have become the head;
her enemies prosper,
because the LORD has afflicted her
for the multitude of her transgressions;
her children have gone away,
captives before the foe.
6 From the daughter of Zion
all her majesty has departed.
Her princes have become like deer
that find no pasture;
they fled without strength
before the pursuer.

C. 7 Jerusalem remembers
in the days of her affliction and wandering
all the precious things
that were hers from days of old.
When her people fell into the hand of the foe,
and there was none to help her,
her foes gloated over her;
they mocked at her downfall.
8 Jerusalem sinned grievously;
therefore she became filthy;
all who honored her despise her,
for they have seen her nakedness;
she herself groans
and turns her face away.
9 Her uncleanness was in her skirts;
she took no thought of her future;d
therefore her fall is terrible;
she has no comforter.

D. “O LORD, behold my affliction,
for the enemy has triumphed!”
10 The enemy has stretched out his hands
over all her precious things;
for she has seen the nations
enter her sanctuary,
those whom you forbade
to enter your congregation.
11 All her people groan
as they search for bread;
they trade their treasures for food
to revive their strength.
“Look, O LORD, and see,
for I am despised.”

D’.12 “Is it nothing to you, all you who pass by?
[see and look] Look and see
if there is any sorrow like my sorrow,
which was brought upon me,
which the LORD inflicted
on the day of his fierce anger.
13 “From on high he sent fire;
into my bonese he made it descend;
he spread a net for my feet;
he turned me back;
he has left me stunned,
faint all the day long.

C’. 14 “My transgressions were bound into a yoke;
by his hand they were fastened together;
they were set upon my neck;
he caused my strength to fail;
the Lord gave me into the hands
of those whom I cannot withstand.
15 “The Lord rejected
all my mighty men in my midst;
he summoned an assembly against me
to crush my young men;
the Lord has trodden as in a winepress
the virgin daughter of Judah.
16 “For these things I weep;
my eyes flow with tears;
for a comforter is far from me,
one to revive my spirit;
my children are desolate,
for the enemy has prevailed.”

B’. 17 Zion stretches out her hands,
but there is none to comfort her;
the LORD has commanded against Jacob
that his neighbors should be his foes;
Jerusalem has become
a filthy thing among them.
18 “The LORD is in the right,
for I have rebelled against his word;
but hear, all you peoples,
and see my suffering;
my young women and my young men
have gone into captivity.
19 “I called to my lovers,
but they deceived me;
my priests and elders
perished in the city,
while they sought food
to revive their strength.

A’. 20 “Look, O LORD, for I am in distress;
my stomach churns;
my heart is wrung within me,
because I have been very rebellious.
In the street the sword bereaves;
in the house it is like death.
21 “They heard my groaning,
yet there is no one to comfort me.
All my enemies have heard of my trouble;
they are glad that you have done it.
You have broughth the day you announced;
now let them be as I am.
22 “Let all their evildoing come before you,
and deal with them
as you have dealt with me
because of all my transgressions;
for my groans are many,
and my heart is faint.”

1 Corinthians 12:31, 14:1

Note: just noticed that the last verse of 1 Cor 12 and the first verse of ch 14 are linked through inversion. The “best gifts” are explained in ch 14 as the gifts of prophecy which edify through teaching. The “more excellent way” is the subject of ch 13 – love. Ch 14 whilst endorsing the priority of love as in ch 13 returns to the issue of the role of tongues in the ecclesia in those days and the necessity for understanding the revelation if there was to be spiritual benefit for the ecclesia.

1 Corinthians 12:31

A.  But covet earnestly (zeloo)  the best gifts:

B. and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way. {charity]

1 Corinthians 14:1

B’. Follow after charity,

A’. and desire  (zeloo) spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy.

Jeremiah 51:20-23

Lundbom argues that the reapeating lines simulate the beating of a hammer and also forms a chiasm!

You are my hammer and weapon of war:

a. with you I break nations in pieces;
with you I destroy kingdoms;
b. 21 with you I break in pieces the horse and his rider;
c. with you I break in pieces the chariot and the charioteer;
d. 22 with you I break in pieces man and woman;
e’. with you I break in pieces the old man and the youth;
d’. with you I break in pieces the young man … young    woman;
c’. 23 with you I break in pieces the shepherd and his flock;
b’. with you I break in pieces the farmer and his team;
a’. with you I break in pieces governors and commanders.


2 Kings 1-2

an almost complete  geographical chiasmus  prosed by J R Lundbom

A. 1:2 Samaria

B. 1:9 Unidentified mountain

C. 2:1 Gilgal

D. 2:2-3 Bethel

E. 2:4-5 Jericho

F. 2:6-8 Jordan River

G. 2:9-12 Trans-Jordan

F’. 2:13-14 Jordan River

E’. 2:15-22 Jericho

D’. 2:23-24 Bethel

C’. …………….

B’. 2:25 Mount Carmel

A’. 2:25 Samaria


Deuteronomy 29:2-28

A. Keep the covenant – 2 And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them, Ye have seen all that the LORD did before your eyes in the land of Egypt unto Pharaoh, and unto all his servants, and unto all his land; 3 The great temptations which thine eyes have seen, the signs, and those great miracles: 4 Yet the LORD hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day. 5 And I have led you forty years in the wilderness: your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot. 6 Ye have not eaten bread, neither have ye drunk wine or strong drink: that ye might know that I am the LORD your God. 7 And when ye came unto this place, Sihon the king of Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, came out against us unto battle, and we smote them: 8 And we took their land, and gave it for an inheritance unto the Reubenites, and to the Gadites, and to the half tribe of Manasseh. 9 Keep therefore the words of this covenant, and do them, that ye may prosper in all that ye do.

B. 10 Ye stand this day all of you before the LORD your God; your captains of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, with all the men of Israel, 11Your little ones, your wives, and thy stranger that is in thy camp, from the hewer of thy wood unto the drawer of thy water:

C. 12 That thou shouldest enter into covenant with the LORD thy God, and into his oath, which the LORD thy God maketh with thee this day:

D. 13 That he may establish thee to day for a people unto himself, and that he may be unto thee a God, as he hath said unto thee, and as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.

C’. 14Neither with you only do I make this covenant and this oath;

B’. 15 But with him that standeth here with us this day before the LORD our God, and also with him that is not here with us this day:

A’. Keep the covenant – 16 (For ye know how we have dwelt in the land of Egypt; and how we came through the nations which ye passed by; 17 And ye have seen their abominations, and their idols, wood and stone, silver and gold, which were among them:) 18 Lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood; 19 And it come to pass, when he heareth the words of this curse, that he bless himself in his heart, saying, I shall have peace, though I walk in the imagination of mine heart, to add drunkenness to thirst:

A. 20 The LORD will not spare him, but then the anger of the LORD and his jealousy shall smoke against that man, and all the curses that are written in this book shall lie upon him, and the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven. 21 And the LORD shall separate him unto evil out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covenant that are written in this book of the law:

B. 22 So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land, and the sicknesses which the LORD hath laid upon it; 23 And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the LORD overthrew in his anger, and in his wrath: 24 Even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this land? what meaneth the heat of this great anger?

B’. 25 Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of their fathers, which he made with them when he brought them forth out of the land of Egypt:

A’. 26 For they went and served other gods, and worshipped them, gods whom they knew not, and whom he had not given unto them: 27 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against this land, to bring upon it all the curses that are written in this book: 28 And the LORD rooted them out of their land in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation, and cast them into another land, as it is this day.